PSYCHOLOGY OF TEACHING AND LEARNING (ED504) MODULE 2: MAIN ASSESSMENT QUESTION 2: Imagine you are on your break hour at school and you walked into the staff lounge to discover Piaget, Vygotsky, Erikson and Kohlberg are there. Their conversation is about learning and development. Write a paper tracing the conversation between each of these theorists. Be sure to accurately reflect the stance that each theorist would take. What would be the implications of any one of the theorist as a teacher and how could the theory be applied to the classroom? VTDI)
This Paper is in Partial Completion Fulfilment of a POST-GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN EDUCATION AND TRAINING Date: October 13, 2011 Piaget, Vygotsky, Erikson and Kohlberg individually expounded their views on learning and development as outlined below. Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory consists of four stages of intellectual development. Stage 1—Sensorimotor Stage. Birth to age 2. The child recognises self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally. The child realises that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the sense. Stage 2—Preoperational Stage Age 2-7.
Learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words. Children learn through imitation and play during this stage. They begin to use reasoning; however it is mainly intuitive, instead of logical. Stage 3—Concrete Operational Stage Age 7- 11. Can thinks logically about objects and events. However this is confined to their level. Stage 4—Formal Operational Stage Age 11-adulthood. Can think logically about conceptual scheme and test hypotheses systematically. Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development shows that personality emerges from a series of conflicts.
Theory Application Paper Example
These conflicts arise at eight stages over the entire life cycle. These crises if resolve or unresolved can result in a greater sense of self or can lead to maladjustment respectively. Below is an outline of the steps and psychosocial interactions involved. Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth to Year). Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care, and affection. Autonomy vs. Shame (2-3 years). Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Initiative vs. Guilt (Preschooler , 4-5years).
Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Industry vs. Inferiority (School-Age Child, 6-11years). Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Identity vs. Identity Confusion (Adolescent, 12-18 years). Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adult 18-35 years). Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle-aged Adult, 35-65 years).
At this stage the middle adult needs to work to establish stability and attempt to produce something that makes a difference to society. Integrity vs. Despair (Older Adult, over 65years). Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfilment. Lawrence Kohlberg concludes that morality develops in stages. Kohlberg’s six stages can be more generally grouped into three levels of two stages each which are outlined below. Level 1 (Pre-Conventional). This is generally found at the elementary school level. Stage 1: Obedience and punishment orientation.
People behave according to socially acceptable norms. This obedience is forced by the threat or application of punishment. Stage 2: Self-interest orientation. This stage is characterized by a view that right behaviour means acting in one’s own best interests Level 2 (Conventional). This is generally found in society. Stage 3: Interpersonal accord and compliance, is regarded as an attitude which seeks to do what will gain the approval of others. Stage 4: Authority and social-order maintaining orientation. This stage is one adjusted to abiding by the law and responding to the obligations of duty.
Level 3 (Post-Conventional). It is felt that this is not reached by the majority of adults. Stage5. Social contract orientation. Is an understanding of social support and a genuine interest in the welfare of others. Stage 6. Universal ethical principles. Is based on respect for universal principle and the demands of individual conscience Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory Vygotsky focused on the connections between people and the sociocultural context in which they act and interact in shared experiences (Crawford, 1996). His major themes are outlined below: 1.
Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development.. He states: “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). ” (Vygotsky, 1978). 2. Anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept can serve as a guide to support cognitive growth. 3.
According to Vygotsky, the Zone of Proximal Development is the distance between a student’s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and the student’s ability solving the problem independently. Vygotsky believes, learning occurred in this zone. The implications of Vygotsky’s theory for the teacher are that it promotes learning in the contexts where students play an active role in learning. Roles of the teacher and student are therefore shifted, as a teacher should collaborate with his or her students in order to help facilitate meaning development in students.
Knowing both levels of Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development is useful for teachers, for these levels indicate where the child is at a given moment as well as where the child is going. According to Vygotsky, for the curriculum to be developmentally appropriate, the teacher must plan activities that encompass not only what children are capable of doing on their own but what they can learn with the help of others (Karpov & Haywood, 1998). Vygotsky’s theory can be applied in the classroom. Vygotsky’s theory does not mean that anything can be taught to any child.
Only instruction and activities that fall within the zone promote development. For example, if a child cannot identify the sounds in a word even after many prompts, the child may not benefit immediately from instruction in this skill. Practice of previously known skills and introduction of concepts that are too difficult and complex have little positive impact. Teachers can use information about both levels of Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development in organizing classroom activities in the following ways: •Instruction can be planned to provide practice in the zone of proximal development for individual children or for groups of hildren. Scaffolding (Wood, Bruner, & Ross, 1976) is a tactic for helping the child in his or her zone of proximal development in which the adult provides hints and prompts at different levels. ” (Wood, Bruner, & Ross, 1976). For example In a high school laboratory science class, a teacher might provide scaffolding by first giving students detailed guides to carrying out experiments, then giving them brief outlines that they might use to structure experiments, and finally asking them to set up experiments entirely on their own. Cooperative learning activities can be planned with groups of children at different levels who can help each other learn. I can be conclude therefore, that a careful application of the theories put forward by these researchers will greatly enhance learning in the classroom References Atherton J S (2011) Learning and Teaching; Piaget’s developmental theory [On-line: UK] retrieved 8 October 2011 from http://www. learningandteaching. info/learning/piaget. htm Crawford, K. (1996) Vygotskian approaches to human development in the information era.
Educational Studies in Mathematics. (31) 43-62. Karpov, Y. , & Haywood, H. C. (1998). Two ways to elaborate Vygotsky’s concept of mediation: Implications for instruction. American Psychologist, 53(1), 27-36. Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2011, October). Erikson’s Stages of Development at Learning-Theories. com. Retrieved October 8th, 2011 from http://www. learning-theories. com/eriksons-stages-of-development. html Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2011, October). Social Development Theory (Vygotsky) at Learning-Theories. com.
Retrieved October 8th, 2011 from http://www. learning-theories. com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory. html Robert N. Barger, Ph. D. (2000) A Summary of Lawerence Kohlberg’s, Stages of Moral Development retrieved October 7th, 2011 from http://www. csudh. edu/dearhabermas/kohlberg01bk. htm . Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wood, D. J. , Bruner, J. S. , & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychiatry and Psychology, 17(2), 89-100